The navy has joined the search for the gunmen off the Niger Delta. Two navy sailors, among a group providing security, were wounded in the raid.
The foreigners are from Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia and Iran.
Attacks in the Niger Delta have declined since a 2009 amnesty for militants ended years of conflict.
The ship that was attacked belongs to Sea Trucks Group, an oil services firm operating internationally.
The raid happened early in the morning, more than 30 nautical miles (56km) off the coast, the officer said.
The heavily polluted delta is Nigeria’s main oil-producing region.